Tues. - Fri. - 10 to 6
Saturday - 12 to 5
Thursday nights
until 9pm

gallery photo by Glenn Halvorson
Phone: 612.788.1790 | Fax: 612.788.6947 | Email: icebox@bitstream.net

1500 Jackson Street NE #443
Minneapolis, MN 55413


A Glossary of Photography Terms
compiled by the Center for Photography at Woodstock, New York

A positive printing process invented in the 1850’s by L. D. Blanquart-Evrard in which a contact print is made on paper coated with a solution of egg white (albumen) and salt, sensitized with silver nitrate and exposed to light.

Contact Print
A contact print, always the same size as the negative from which it was made, is produced by placing the negative in direct contact with the paper rather than projecting the image onto the paper through an enlarger. Contact prints have extraordinarily high resolution, that is, sharpness of detail.

(dye bleach, Ilfochrome) A positive to positive (reversal) process using three emulsion layers of silver salts sensitized to one of three colors: red, blue, or green. The image is formed by selectively bleaching dyes already existing within the paper. "Cibachrome" is the patented name given by Ilford.

Color Coupler Print
A positive print made from a color negative, involving at least three emulsion layers of silver salts sensitized to one of three colors- red, green, or blue. Unlike a dye-destruction print, the dyes are not contained within each layer prior to exposure, but are made during development by adding dye couplers which join the silver particles to produce dyes. The result is a full color positive image formed of the three emulsion layers against a white background. This process may also be known as Ektacolor print, chromogenic color print, or Type-C print.

Sir John Herschel invented the Cyanotype process in 1840. Cyanotype is a printing process based on the light sensitivity of iron salts. Cyanotypes are considered to be one of the most stable and long-lasting prints. Herschel, astronomer and inventor, was also the first to use the terms "negative" and "positive" to describe the manufacture of a photographic print.

Dye Transfer
In this method of color printing, an original transparency or negative is projected through red, green and blue filters. These separation negatives are then projected or contact-printed to make three relief matrices dyed in cyan, magenta, and yellow dye. Each of the matrices is then brought into registered contact with a sheet of special transfer paper which absorbs dye. The finished print is therefore made up of a combination of dye images. Dye transfer is one of the most permanent color processes.

Gelatin Silver Print
(silver print, black-and-white) The standard, black-and-white photograph printed on paper coated with gelatin and emulsions containing light sensitive silver halides/salts.

A fine art print created on a digital inkjet printer, including Iris.

Gum-Bichromate Print
A print made by exposing a negative on a paper coated with an emulsion of gum arabic, potassium bichromate and pigment. Similar to the carbon process, the emulsion hardens in relation to the amount of light it receives through exposure, and the unexposed emulsion is washed away.

Half-Tone Print
A photomechanical process in which a photographic image is recorded on a relief plate that can be printed on a press. The result is an image made of a tiny dot pattern with larger, more closely spaced dots in darker areas.

A one-of-a-kind, unique print that can not be duplicated exactly because of intricate manipulation in the printing or handwork in the creation of the print.

A printing process in which images are formed in platinum or palladium by placing a negative on paper sensitized, either by hand or pre-coated, with a solution of platinum or palladium and iron salts, exposed to light, and then developed in Potassium oxalate. Platinum/Palladium prints are thought to be more permanent than silver prints and allow for a very large tonal scale (numerous tones of gray).

A unique photographic print made without a camera by placing objects on a light-sensitive surface and exposing them to light. The objects appear as negative silhouettes. A technique commonly associated with the work of Man Ray ("Rayograph"), Christian Schad ("Schadograph"), and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy.

A photomechanical process, based on the printmaking technique of Intaglio. A copper plate is coated with a light-sensitive gelatin tissue, exposed to a negative, and then etched. The result is a high quality print reproducing the continuous tones of a photograph.

Pigment Processes
The pigment process is a general term including a variety of different printing methods which include bromoil, carbon, carbro, and gum bichromate. In all of these techniques the final image is based in pigment rather than a light sensitive metal like silver or platinum. Basically a colloid such as gelatin is made light sensitive with the addition of potassium bichromate which hardens upon exposure to light in proportion to the amount of light received.

A print is considered vintage if the positive image was made from the original negative by the photographer, or overseen by the photographer, at approximately the same time the negative was made. This term is used for historical prints.